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village stocks pic
The History of Huncoat
A chronological list of dates
Section One : Pre 1900
huncoat hall pic
700 Early settlement seems most likely to have been during Saxon times when East Lancashire formed part of Northumbria under King Oswald. It was a sparsely populated area of peatmoss and woodland.
800 The name probably originates from the Anglo-Saxon term "cottar" mid way in the mediaeval social scale of yeomen between serfs who were the lowest and velleins who were tenant farmers.
Hence; "home of a cottar."
However, other suggestions include –
· Hun’s cottage (Hun being a personal name)
· Chiefain's cottage
· A small house, animal shelter or hundred sheep fold
· A place where honey is made or stored
The spelling has varied from Hunnicot to Hunnicotes, Huntcotes, Hunecote and Huncote.
910 Edward the Elder, King of Wessex conquered the area south of the River Ribble and attached it to his Midlands Kingdom of Mercia. Ecclesiastically this brought the area under the Parish of Whalley and Diocese of Lichfield.
1017 Danish kings ruled England for 25 years until the Saxons regained supremacy with the reign of Edward the Confessor.
1042 The local Saxon Thane was Leofwine who presided over a domain that included Huncoat and Accrington from a riverside manor house at Altham (originally spelt Elvetham). The manor house stood on high ground in a strategic position near a ford across the River Calder.
1050 Oxen were employed to plough the land for growing wheat, rye and barley, cattle were pastured and the rivers provided good fishing. The land was unenclosed except for dwellings which clustered together in small ‘folds’ for protection from raiders and wild animals such as boar and wolf. Wains or wagons were used for transport and people were allowed “waingate” right of way with corn to the mill and to return with flour, hence the name of the lane to Accrington of Millgate.
1066 Following the Norman conquest King William I divided up the country between his Barons and Roger of Poitou received the lands between the Ribble and the Mersey. Under him two Norman knights De Busli and De Greslet governed Blackburnshire which included Huncoat but Leofwine the Saxon was permitted to remain in control of local estates in return for homage to the new regime.
1086 The Domesday Book recorded that “King Edward had had two carucates of land at Hunnicot” (about 250 acres or approximately the same size as the area now bounded by Burnley Road, Bolton Avenue, Enfield Road, Station Road, Lowergate and Highergate).
In those days a carucate was supposed to be enough land to support one family. The structure of the open fields system in Britain had been influenced by the introduction of the caruca a large wheeled plough, developed by the Gauls, which was much more capable of dealing with heavy English clay soils than the lightweight Roman version. The caruca required a larger team of oxen to pull it, as many as eight on heavy soils and was awkward to turn around, so very long strips were ideal. Most peasants could not afford a whole team of oxen, just one or two, so maintaining an ox team had to be a joint enterprise.
Only three other places in the Blackburn Hundred (North East Lancashire) are mentioned in Domesday and these did not include Altham. Domesday refers to two Norman Lords over Hunnicot, Roger de Bully and Albert Grelley (De Busli and De Greslet) but they were soon replaced by Ilbert de Lacy, 1st Baron of Pontefract. The Honour of Pontefract was maintained by Ilbert's direct male descendants for the next three generations until 1192. It continued in the female line until 1348.
1100 By the turn of the century Ilbert’s son Robert de Lacy, 2nd Baron of Pontefract was the Lord and had built Clitheroe castle.
1147 Henry de Lacy, 4th Baron of Pontefract, 2nd Lord of Bowland, promised to dedicate an abbey to the Virgin Mary should he survive a serious illness. He recovered and agreed to give the Abbot of Fountains Abbey land at Barnoldswick to found a daughter abbey. Abbot Alexander with twelve Cistercian monks from Fountains went to Barnoldswick and after demolishing the existing church attempted to build the abbey on Henry de Lacy's land. They stayed for six years but found the place inhospitable. Abbot Alexander set about finding a more suitable place for the abbey and came across a site on the banks of the River Aire at Kirkstall near Leeds.
1150 Hugh the Saxon founded Altham church. Originally dedicated to St Mary it later became St James’s.
1152 The Cistercian abbey at Barnoldswick was relegated to a Grange (a farm run by lay brothers) when the monks moved to found Kirkstall Abbey.
1154 During the reign of Stephen there was civil war with Scotland and to ensure his allegiance Henry de Lacy granted a charter confirming Hugh the Saxon son of Leofwine legal possession of the estates of Elvetham, Clayton, Akerington, Bylington and the monastery of Elevetham. Such monastery could only have been a small monastic cell serving the ford across the river Calder.
1191 Henry’s son Robert de Lacy detached the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Accrington and Huncoat from Altham in favour of Kirkstall Abbey. Thus began a long standing dispute by the Saxons of Altham over the status of their church lasting 80 years.
1235 Roger, the last Dean of Whalley handed over his church to John de Lacy in exchange for a life pension and de Lacy placed Peter de Cestria into the living who then made claim to Altham and thus Huncoat.
1241 Hugh the Saxon’s eldest son William inherited the manor and took the name de Altham. The younger brother Edward de Billington inherited rights to various lands including Huncoat and it was one of his descendants William who in residing at Huncoat acquired the name de Huncoat.
1249 Peter de Cestria, rector of Whalley challenged the status of Altham parish church claiming it was merely a dependant chapelry of Whalley. The Pope delegated powers in respect of this dispute to the Prior of St Frideswide, Oxford ( which became Christ Church Cathedral in the reign of Henry VIII). The Prior decided in favour of Whalley so Altham lost its rights as a parish church not to be regained until the 19th century.
1250 The monks of Kirkstall defined a boundary between Huncoat and Accrington at Wormley Clough (Warm Leaf), a small stream on the north side of the Coppice. “The pointed stone in Fernihalgh” was a 13th Century boundary marker above the clough that remained in place until the early 20th Century, (see 1499 and 1844).
1256 Rights to use of land in Huncoat was the subject of dispute between Richard de Altham, the Abbot of Kirkstall and Peter de Cestria rector of Whalley. On 18th June Richard was obliged to surrender his claim to rights.
1277 William de Altham settled the long standing dispute with Kirkstall over Accrington and Huncoat rights by renouncing the claim in return for 80 marks of silver.
1287 Kirkstall Abbey got into financial difficulty and relinquished their Accrington and Huncoat estates to the de Lacy family on leasehold.
1295 After Peter de Cestria died Henry de Lacy granted Whalley to the monks of Stanlow Abbey against which William de Altham again disputed that Altham was a church not a chapel. A protracted legal wrangle ended in the Court of Arches on 20th October when William lost his case.
1300 William de Huncoat was living in Huncoat Hall and the site on the hillside above the Griffin’s Head is possibly the earliest still surviving of any building in the village.
1301 Simon de Altham continued to dispute the Altham church matter and managed to secure a settlement of £20 plus £300 costs in return for “resigning any rights he may have had!”
1305 The Halmot Court records of Accrington indicate that Huncoat tenants farmed 309 acres and paid an annual rent of around £5 to the de Lacy’s on the Feast of St Giles (1st Sept.).
1316 Following the Battle of Bannockburn North Lancashire was overrun by Scotch Borderers and lawless times ensued. Robert Bruce of Scotland laid the county waste as far as Preston but King Edward II and subsequently his son Edward III gradually restored order.
1318 John de Huncoat exchanged Huncoat Hall for a similar possession in Hapton belonging to a William de Birtwistle. Thus the family de Huncoat disappear from this history and the Birtwistles’ start 426 years of association with the village.
1322 The de Lacy estates which had passed through the marriage of Alice to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster were forfeited to the Crown when the Earl was declared a rebel and executed. Consequently the Abbott of Kirkstall had temporary difficulty in obtaining the annual revenue.
1327 Thomas’s brother Henry who had not been involved in the rebellion gradually recovered the de Lacy estates for the Duchy of Lancaster.
1395 Brown Moor Farm known to have existed.
1399 The land belonging to the Duke of Lancaster including Huncoat passed to his son who became King Henry IV and thus remained a royal possession until the Civil War in 1649.
1425 Richard of Hill House named in documented records (fined by the Court for chasing sheep).
1495 Brown Moor Farm named in records as owned by Lettice, wife of Nicholas Towneley (see 1948).
1499 There is evidence that Hillock Farm existed in "Tudor" times but originally called "Fernihalgh Vaccary." Vachery meant enclosure for cows. (See also 1250 and 1844).
1507 King Henry VII appointed a Commission to grant out forests to copyholders which led to unprecedented development of lands for agriculture, mining and quarrying. (But see 1602).
1509 Huncoat had its own Local Constable to uphold the law.
1509 Oliver Birtwistle of Huncoat Hall died and his son Richard then aged 40 took over the Hall.
1512 The parish church at Altham was rebuilt but retaining some of the original stone. There remains a greater range and variety of Norman work at Altham than any other church in Lancashire.
1514 Eight yeomen from the village prosecuted John and Thomas Riley for trespass on Huncoat Moor but gained no satisfaction in court.
1520 During the reign of King Henry VIII Huncoat came under the newly formed Diocese of Chester.
1532 Records show that Huncoat had a pinfold enclosure where stray cattle and sheep were placed. Also that people were being fastened in the village stocks for wrong doings. (Also see 1722).
1534 The first recorded enclosure of land in Huncoat Lane by Richard Birtwistle of Huncoat Hall was disputed in the Halmot Court (Local Government of Accrington). This may indicate that Old Hall Farm was in existence there then.
1539 Kirkstall Abbey near Leeds was closed under the Dissolution of the Monastries and surrendered to King Henry VIII’s commissioners on 22nd November.
1545 By this time another Oliver Birtwistle (son of Richard 1509) was living in Huncoat Hall.
1547 A right of way for the trade of corn and flour between Huncoat and Accrington was contested before the Halmot Court by Oliver Birtwistle but he was only partially successful. However, this implies that a flourishing corn market must have existed in Huncoat at the time. (Also see 1952).
1550 Population of the area increasing with more and more land being enclosed and cultivated. These intakes were almost all held as copyholds with annual dues payable to the manor. It was a relatively peaceful era when yeomen tended crops and livestock for sale at market and packhorses carried a trade of lime and coal.
1556 Both Lower and Higher Brown Birks named in records.
1560 A coat of arms was granted to Oliver Birtwistle of Huncoat Hall.
It was a “Sable a cheveron ermine between three weasels proper.”
crest
1560 The original Hill House in Towngate was built in Tudor times. Towngate was the central area of Highergate and Lowergate. The word gata is Danish (gate in Anglo Saxon) and means street.
Ancient Royal Highways formed a crossroads at Towngate. One from Clitheroe coming via Altham and the Kings Highway to Haslingden and the other from Accrington to Burnley via Millgate (Cleggs Lane).
1567 Oliver’s son James had married Agnes daughter and heir of George Ormerod.
1577 Huncoat was shown on Christopher Saxton's map of Lancashire.
1580 The date put on the oldest surviving stonework of Huncoat Hall.
1584 There is evidence that there was extensive lead mining on the slopes of Hameldon.
1596 The boundaries of "Huncoat" began to be properly defined, a total of more than 900 acres.
The population seems to have been about 100.
1597 James Birtwistle died leaving his son John to inherit. John had married Dorothy sister of Thomas Worthington of Blainscough.
The population seems to have been about 100.
1600 Early in the 17th Century the first beer house the Black Bull, was established on the Royal Highway.
1602 The new King James I disputed the legality of the 1507 tenures of copyholders and landowners because he wanted to raise revenue. To avoid the risk of losing their homesteads and lands the owners agreed to pay a levy on them. (Also see 1618).
1608 Slate Pits Farm built by the Hargreaves family below Moleside.
1611 A farm existed on top of Whinney Hill called Hard Farm, 'Hard' meaning head or top of.
1617 A total of 12 tenements in Huncoat were recorded as yielding copyhold rents. (See 1550).
1617 John Birtwistle died and his son Thomas then aged 19 became the incumbent of Huncoat Hall.
1618 A Decree of Confirmation was granted by the Crown on 4th June recognising the tenures of copyholders and landowners but this did not resolve the dispute. (See 1662).
1642 Parliamentarian forces won the Battle of Whinney Hill on 2nd December (the actual battle site was Henfield or Enfield Moor - probably now quarried away).
1643 Lancashire was predominantly a Parliamentarian area but Thomas Birtwistle of Huncoat Hall had his estate sequestered for being a Royalist and religious non-conformist although he claimed never to have born arms against the Parliamentarians.
1660 Richard Birtwistle regained the estates on the restoration of Charles II but suffered penalties for recusancy (non-conformism).
1660 The 100 years from 1650 to 1750 was the period of great rebuilding in stone throughout England because timber, previously the main stay of all but the grandest houses was in short supply. Hill House seems to have been re-constructed in stone around this time so is probably the oldest surviving intact building in the village.
1660 Brown Moor Farm was occupied by the Bentley family. They were shoe makers and their descendants carried on the craft there for two centuries.
1662 An Act of Confirmation was passed by Parliament properly legalising copyholds etc.
1666 37 hearths were declared in Huncoat for the "Hearth Tax" 7 of which were in Huncoat Hall and 4 in the next largest house. The tax was abolished in 1689 but the “Window Tax” began in 1695.
1692 Altham Hall ceased to be the manorial seat when Mary Banastre married Ambrose Walton of Marsden Hall.
1722 John Hacking of Huncoat perfected one of the earliest cotton carding machines. He and his wife lived in a cottage in Town Gate and are buried in Altham church yard. The east window of the church commemorates several members of the Hacking family. Handloom weaving was still a cottage industry in the area up to this time.
1722 The Huncoat Stocks are inscribed with this date but were clearly in use much earlier. (See 1532).
1730 Huncoat Hall reconstructed.
1733 Middle Hill House built.
1738 Stone Hey Barn and probably Stone Hey Cottage built.
1744 John Birtwistle sold Huncoat Hall and estates ending a 426 years family connection.
1750 It is more than likely that Grime Row cottages were erected in the 17th or 18th Century. Greenwood’s map of 1818 implies something was there near Brown Moor Farm. The “Grime” family are reputed to have founded a candle factory on the site.
1755 Existence of Broad Meadows Farm recorded on a datestone.
1756 The date on the old barn of Woodnook Farm a building adjoining the Whitakers Arms.
1768 The date on the famous Huncoat Old Hall Farm tablet preserved in the wall of the Peace Garden on the corner of Burnley Lane. It bears the names of Daniel and Dorothy Barroclough and the Arms of the Birtwistle’s because as Oliver Birtwistle’s daughter she was the last of the family line. The datestone was originally over the doorway of the farmhouse situated on the crest of Highergate Road below Huncoat Bank and its farmland is now the Old Hall Drive and Sutton Crescent housing estate.
1777 The population of Huncoat thought to have been around 200.
1780 The present day buildings of the Black Bull and the White Lion date from around this time. Two slaughter houses once existed in the village, one next to the Black Bull and the other in Burnley Lane.
1780 The Industrial Revolution was well under way and Lancashire's cotton industry developing but it was slow to reach Huncoat.
1782 Richard Fort of Stone Hey in partnership with a Mr. Taylor and a Mr.Bury founded the Broad Oak Calico Print Works in Accrington. His father was also called Richard Fort but resided in Altham and was a leading member of the Oakenshaw Baptist community. It was he who facilitated the building of the Meeting House and Macpelah burial-ground on land he owned next to the Corn Mill on Hyndburn Road, Accrington. The grandfather was a Lawrence Fort who had lived at Hard Farm.
1785 For hundreds of years the Kings Highway through Huncoat coming over from Rossendale past Mary's Holy Well on the slopes of Great Hameldon had been an important road but it declined in the 18th and 19th centuries with the coming of the turnpikes particularly when the new Manchester to Whalley Road was established through Accrington in 1789. It was the last road built by John Metcalf the blind road-maker of Knaresborough. It took 2½ years to complete and cost £40 over the budget of £500. horse and cart
1790 The Georgian Highbrake Hall was built by Richard Fort (see 1815).
1795 Up until the end of the 18thC places like Mary's Holy Well were places of pilgrimage and fairs on the first Sunday in May (see both 1844 and the miscellaneous facts section).
1800 Before the railway was built James Allen of Spout House Farm ran local stagecoaches, the horses for which were changed at the Walton Arms and brought up to be stabled near Burnley Road. The route from the farm to the stocks became known as Clegg's Lane because the Clegg family lived in Spout House Farm for over 100 years.
1801 Population of Huncoat recorded to be 480.
1801 Around this time Baptists started to meet in a small cottage behind the White Lion.
1801 The Leeds Liverpool canal reached Huncoat. At 103¾ miles it was the longest built in Britain and the halfway point is at Church Kirk just 2 miles from Huncoat. The sections were built between 1770 and 1777 but then economic depression delayed its completion until 1816. The original budget for its construction had been £260,000 but by the time work was completed it had cost £1,200,000. Houghton Barn in Altham Lane was the canal packet station for passengers to Huncoat. Only a short stretch of the canal (350 metres east from Shorten Brook) actually falls within the parish boundary.
1805 The Baptists extended their building with another cottage next door to act as a meeting house.
1810 The Baptists extended again next door with a much bigger chapel and the access alongside the White Lion became known as Chapel Street.
1811 Population of Huncoat recorded to be 514.
1813 The area had a very severe winter in 1813/14 when the canal froze and again about 20 years later Huncoat was cut off by deep snow falls.
1815 Highbrake Hall had become an elite boarding school run by the Rev William Wood, vicar of Altham.
1818 Greenwood’s map of Lancashire showed a system of roads in Huncote and named High Break, Branbirks and Windy Harbour. The north-south road was clearly the Kings Highway whilst the eastern road ran along Burnley Lane. To the west the road took a direct line over Whinney Hill to Enfield passing close to Holker House and Hard Farms on a more northerly route than the later road.
1821 Population of Huncoat recorded to be 629.
1822 Methodist services began to be held in various cottages but were not very successful so were discontinued within 12 months.
1825 Huncoat Hall was owned by a Mr Foot.
1826 Whinney Hill was the site of a mass meeting of hand loom weavers in May protesting about new machinery putting them out of work. Huncoat Jack was one of the leaders who incited violence through speeches during these ‘Loom Riots’. The hungry mob marched straight to Accrington to smash up the machinery that was depriving them of means.
1829 Hennet’s map of Lancashire showed the same pattern of roads in Huncoat as Greenwood had eleven years earlier but with the anticipated footprint of a new turnpike included. He named High Break Hall, Rappet Hall, Hard, Enfield Nook, Brown Birks, New Hall, Spout Hall, Hollock Bank, Broddas, Rake Head, Higher Luishaw and Hameldon Hall.
1830 A local brick making industry was in evidence but was restrained by a brick tax dating from 1784.
1831 Hard Farm house on Whinney Hill rebuilt.
1831 Population of Huncoat recorded to be 502.
1832 In Altham Lane there were two farm buildings known as Blind Lane Ends. They stood at grid reference SD778312 but were demolished in 1948 to make way for the power station.
1834 Construction began of the Burnley Road turnpike which opened in 1838. It was the last turnpike to be built in the area and was subsequently designated as the A679.
1835 A Methodist Sunday School was founded in the top floor room of an old cotton warehouse situated between the White Lion and Bank Terrace.
1837 Huncoat was included in Burnley Rural area for Poor Law and Registration.
1838 The Griffin's Head pub was built by Shaw's Brewery, although it was originally for a short time called the Cross Gates because it was at the cross roads of Burnley Road and Kingsway. It is most likely that the Whitakers Arms also dates from this period to serve the new turnpike.
1839 Terrace adjacent to Read View erected in Station Road.
1839 Huncoat Hall was owned by the Towneley family who eventually inherited the title of Earl of Abingdon from a distant relative.
1839 The first Sunday School Anniversary was held on 25th August when the preacher was a Mr. Ingham Walton of Barrowford and the singing was led by the choir of Union Street Church Accrington.
1841 Population of Huncoat recorded to be 447.
1843 The Whitakers of Simonstone put their Huncoat estates up for sale by auction on 24th July.
These included Old Hall Farm, Spout House Farm, Lower Gate Farm and Broad Meadows Farm.
1844 Purpose built Methodist Sunday School completed in Burnley Lane. The land was bought from Mr. Charles Townley of Townley Hall at a cost of one penny per yard. By July 1844 the new Sunday School was built and finished at a total cost of £250.
1844 William Herd a former Baptist pastor started a day school in Broad Meadows Farm.
1844 The Ordnance Survey map of this date showed -
* Numerous small sandstone quarries to produce building blocks
* The centre of the village was clustered around the cross roads of Towngate
* That there was a cross on the knoll of Huncoat Bank before the War Memorial
* The Whitakers Arms, White Lion, Black Bull and Griffin's Head Inn
* The Baptist’s 1810 chapel showed as a long terrace behind the White Lion
* The first Burnley Road reservoir at Hillock Vale
* Two separate buildings named Warm Leaf in the Within Grove area
* Higher Brown Birks (located at the top of Bolton Avenue)
* Lower Brown Birks (located at the bottom of Bolton Avenue)
* Within Grove, Spout House, Hillock Bank and Mount Farm
* Rake Head Farm in the first field at the northern end of Miry Lane
* Miry Lane, Ing Field, Slate Pits, White Riding, Hameldon Hall and Windy Harbour adjacent to the King's Highway
* Hameldon Reservoir supplying “The Oak Print Works.”
* May Road Well on the south western foot of Great Hameldon (See both 1795 and the miscellaneous facts section)
* A boundary marker stone on the moor summit between Ing Field and Warm Leaf Clough (possibly the Fernihalgh Stone (see 1250 and 1499)
* Brown Moor Farm, Grime Row and Blind Lane Ends Farms east of High Brake Hall & Stone Hey
* Brick Barn in fields east of Blind Lane Ends)
* Blind Lane End Farms (located a little north of Grime Row)
* Brick Barn in the fields east of Blind Lane End Farms
* The isolated buildings of Broad Meadows in what later became Station Road
* Nearer Holker House (later the RSPCA sanctuary)
* Further Holker House (located on the east side of Whinney Hill
* Hard Farm on top of Whinney Hill (later a quarry and then the landfill site)
* Sankey House Farm on the south side of Whinney Hill Road
* Rabbit Hole; a cottage in the fields above Clough Brook, later covered by the tarmac of the M65
* Pipers Row, a terrace of 6 houses forming a narrow throat in Highergate Road (See 1906 and 1993)
* Bank Brewery in Burnley Road below Hillock Bank
* That the name Enfield was originally Henfield, the area between Clayton and Altham
1845 The opening service of the new Methodist Sunday School took place on 16th July conducted by the Rev. W. Illingworth of Hull.
1846 The first small reservoir was constructed beside Burnley Road at Hillock Vale (see 1890).
1848 East Lancashire Railway opened to Huncoat on 27th May. The original village station was off Altham Lane near what later became the Power Station site.
1850 The repeal of the Brick Tax, coal mining, the arrival of railways, increased industrialisation and mechanisation paved the way for the brick making industry to take off.
1851 Census gave the population as 598. The window tax was abolished on 24th July.
1852 Household handloom weaving was still a significant village industry but there was also a gradual expansion of dairy farming to supply the growth of Accrington.
1853 The mill workers cottages in Yorkshire Street, Prospect Terrace and Highbrake Terrace were built.
1853 Huncoat Cotton Mill was built by John S. Grimshaw (later called Perseverance Mill and sometimes Highbrake Mill). It was located on the east side of the railway line to the south of the level crossing.
1853 Mill workers cottages built at Hillock Vale (Vale Court, South Street and Parker Street).
1854 Building of Hillock Vale Cotton Weaving Mill completed by the Shutt Brothers in Burnley Road.
1859 Stone Hey Terrace built by John Pollard.
1861 Census gave the population as 839, a 40% increase in 10 years largely due to the new cotton mills. Many of the new immigrants came from the Settle and Ribblesdale area.
1862 Woodside House built by mill owner John Grimshaw.
1864 Cemetery opened off Burnley Road. A curved driveway led to the gates.
1865 White Lion first mentioned by name in a directory. In those days many pubs including the Black Bull were just classed as "Beerhouses".
1866 Huncoat became a Civil Parish in Burnley RDC.
1866 The date on the pediment of Highergate (or Howard's) Farm situated on the corner of Burnley Lane (see 1960).
1868 The Whitakers Arms had become known as the Cemetery Hotel.
1869 A larger Methodist (Wesleyan) Church and Institute were built in Station Road at a total cost of £1,138:5s:11d and the old Sunday School in Burnley Lane was sold.
1871 A Day School commenced in the Methodist Institute.
1871 Huncoat Hall reconstructed again (see 1730).
1871 Census gave the population as 990.
1874 Highbrake Hotel built for Bentley's Milnshaw Brewery (see 1893).
1874 The Baptist’s extended their terrace yet again with a large Sunday School next to their chapel.
1878 Accrington became a municipal authority in May but Huncoat was still part of Burnley Rural District.
1878 Huncoat Bank (the war memorial knoll) was bequeathed to the village by the Peel family famous for founding the police force. It is known locally as the Rec because it is a recreation ground.
1880 Rockdale (later re-named Middleton House) built in Burnley Road (see 1909 and 1931).
1881 The railway station had been moved to the south side of the level crossing in Enfield Road but a local petition complained about "the disgraceful accomodation."
1881 Census list gave the population as 930 and included residents of Yorkshire Street, Prospect Terrace, High Brake Terrace, and Providence Terrace.
1883 The Moorfield coal mine shaft was sunk between 1879 and 1881and subsequently connected with the Whinney Hill mine shaft. Collectively these two mines were known as the Altham Colliery. On 7th November a massive underground explosion killed 68 men and boys in the Moorfield Pit Disaster.
1885 Huncoat Pit founded with the sinking of the first shaft, which eventually reached 850 feet deep.
It was called the Broadmeadow Colliery and operated until 9 Feb 1968.
There were two major seams worked at various times – the Lower Mountain and Upper Mountain. These seams ran throughout the Lancashire coal field varying in thickness but being about 2ft 4ins and 3ft 4ins respectively under Huncoat .
1886 Cooperative Society store built in Station Road but the village centre was still around Towngate with small shops at numbers 5 and 16 Burnley Lane.
1886 Holyrood Terrace erected in Burnley Road.
1886 St.Augustine's Chapel of Ease founded, later rebuilt as a full church (see 1908).
1887 The Accrington Brick and Tile Co (Nori) began production of very hard and durable bricks which also became known as “Accrington Bloods.” The strong hue being due to the iron in the clay and the name “Nori” being the spelling of iron backwards.
This 30 metre deep layer of red clay known as Accrington Mudstone or Shale was deposited during the Carboniferous era when the Accrington area was flooded by a large lake.
The Accrington works was one of the first to successfully use the “semi dry” production method. Accrington bricks have been used in some iconic buildings around the world such as Blackpool Tower and the Empire State Building.
The works and the quarry were never actually in Huncoat but on the other side of Whinney Hill straddling the parish boundary between Altham, Enfield and Clayton.
1887 Secret gambling was common in the hills around Hapton and Huncoat which probably led to the local name of “Gamblers Caves” of a quarry near the Kings Highway,
1887 A newsroom was opened in the Coop store but closed in 1903 owing to “the practice of gambling”.
1890 The Ordnance Survey map of this date showed -
* The main Burnley Road Reservoir had been built below the 1846 one
* At this time the Huncoat Bank recreation ground was divided into two fields by a fence and a well was marked by the roadside opposite to Old Hall Farm
* The extended Baptist terrace with it’s new Sunday School, corner to corner with the Methodist building of 1844 in Burnley Lane
* Mount Quarry and Hey Head Quarry situated on the north side of Burnley Lane
* Altham Brick and Tile Works had been established on the canal side next to Clough Brook
* The Enfield Brick and Terra Cotta Works existed between Henry Street and Whinney Hill and the Accrington Brick and Tile Works (Nori) had been established on the south-west side of the hill
* Whinney Hill Colliery was marked as “Altham Colliery” between a saw mill on the corner with Whalley Road and the Accrington Brick and Tile Works (Nori)
* Huncoat Colliery was marked but the workings were not extensive at this time
* The crescent shaped terraces of High Brake and Prospect either side of Yorkshire Street
* Industrial Terrace existed adjoining the Cooperative Society Store in Station Road
* St.Augustine's School existed in the unmade road then called Church Lane (later Bolton Avenue)
* The original Within Grove from 1844 was now named Within Grove Cottage with new farm buildings named Within Grove located further NW nearer the railway line
* Marl Place existed on Enfield Road
* Whinney Hill Cottage had been built at the corner of Whinney Hill Road near Sankey House
* Accrington Football and Cricket Ground had been established
* Some rifle ranges existed below Rake Head Farm
1891 Census gave the population as 956.
The main occupations being cotton working, mining and agriculture.
1892 Carlton Terrace erected in Station Road.
1893 Highbrake Hotel became known as the Railway Hotel.
1894 The Huncoat Plastic Brick and Terra Co. (trademark Redac, based on "Red Accrington") was founded in Yorkshire Street next to Huncoat Cotton Mill. Ore originally came from a quarry behind the works but later from the Coppice by means of a tramway passing under Burnley Road in a tunnel near between numbers 454 and 482. After a fatal accident to the village policeman’s daughter an aerial ropeway was built over the road (see 1965).
1896 A network of mineral railways grew up around Whinney Hill.
1897 Oak Bank Terrace built on Enfield Road.
1899 Perseverance Mill passed into the ownership of John Barnes.

Section Two : Post 1900
Section Three : Miscellaneous Facts
Back to Huncoat History Contents Page

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